Today in Middle Eastern history: the Battle of Lalakaon (863) September 3, 2020 September 5, 2020 ~ DWD. Paulicianism: Battle of Lalakaon, Battle of Bathys Ryax, Divri I, Petrus Siculus: Amazon.es: LLC Books: Libros en idiomas extranjeros The Byzantines though stood firm, giving the other two Byzantine wings time to close in and attack the Arab army's exposed rear and flanks. Despite his defeat, and a massive Abbasid invasion the next year, Nikephoros persevered until troubles in the eastern provinces of the Caliphate forced the Abbasids to conclude a peace. Theophilos was the Byzantine Emperor from 829 until his death in 842. [5], During the 850s the most significant threats to the Byzantine Empire were the emirate of Melitene (Malatya), under Umar al-Aqta; the emirate of Tarsus, under Ali ibn Yahya ("Ali the Armenian"); the emirate of Qaliqala (Theodosiopolis, modern Erzurum), and the Paulicians of Tephrike, led by Karbeas. Umar's forces represented the bulk of his emirate's strength, but their size is unknown: the contemporary Muslim historian Ya'qubi claims that Umar had 8,000 men at his disposal, while the Byzantine historians Genesius and Theophanes Continuatus inflate the numbers of the Arab army to 40,000 men. Paulicianism: Battle of Lalakaon, Battle of Bathys Ryax, Divri I, Petrus Siculus: Books, LLC, Books, LLC: Amazon.nl He held the high posts of chartoularios tou kanikleiou and logothetēs tou dromou under Michael and his son Theophilos. During the night, both Arabs and Byzantines endeavoured to occupy it, but the Byzantines emerged victorious from the ensuing fight. A eunuch, he assisted in the ascent of Michael II to the throne in 822, and was rewarded with the titles of patrikios and later magistros. Amazon.ae: Paulicianism: Battle of Lalakaon, Battle of Bathys Ryax, Divri I, Petrus Siculus: Books, LLC, Books, LLC: Books LLC [13] [16] With the approach of the Byzantine armies, the only escape route open to the emir and his men was dominated by a strategically located hill. [5][9][10] There, the Tarsian army returned home, but Umar obtained Ja'far's leave to press on into Asia Minor. After the rapid Muslim conquests of the 7th century, the Byzantine Empire was confined to Asia Minor, the southern coasts of the Balkans, and parts of Italy. The two centuries-old Arab-Byzantine conflict was on the cusp of a total shift in fortunes in the middle of the 9th century. In 864, the victorious eastern armies were transferred to Europe and invaded Bulgaria, in a demonstration of military might that convinced Boris to accept Byzantine missionaries instead. The Battle of Lalakaon (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Λαλακάοντος) or Battle of Po(r)son (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Πό(ρ)σωνος) was fought in 863 between the Byzantine Empire and an invading Arab army in Paphlagonia (modern northern Turkey). [32][33] Strong influences can be found in episodes in the Arab, and later Turkish, epic cycles around Battal Ghazi, as well as an episode in the One Thousand and One Nights.[34]. If it no longer meets these criteria, you can reassess it. There was little in the first year of the war to suggest that submarines were a major issue. The al-ʿAwāṣim was the Arabic term used to refer to the Muslim side of the frontier zone between the Byzantine Empire and the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates in Cilicia, northern Syria and Upper Mesopotamia. [13][16] With the approach of the Byzantine armies, the only open escape route left to the Emir and his men was dominated by a strategically located hill. 1940. [27] [29] Al-Tabari reports that the news of the deaths of Umar and Ali—"strong defenders of Islam, men of great courage who elicited enormous praise among the frontier districts where they served"—provoked an outpouring of grief in Baghdad and other cities, culminating in riots and looting. This event destroyed the power of the Paulician state and removed a major threat to Byzantium, heralding the fall of Tephrike itself and the annexation of the Paulician principality shortly after. [6][7] Melitene, in particular, was a major threat to Byzantium as its location on the western side of the Anti-Taurus range allowed direct access to the Anatolian plateau. Both sides tried to occupy it during the night, but the Byzantines were victorious. Battle of Lalakaon. The Byzantine historians report that Umar, enraged at the sea blocking his advance, ordered it to be lashed, but this is most likely inspired by the similar account of Xerxes during the Persian Wars. According to the Byzantinist John Haldon, the former number was closer to reality; Haldon estimates the combined Arab forces at 15,000–20,000 men. At this time Yazeed was still south of the River Yarmuk; Amr bin Al Aas was still at the Valley of Araba; and several detachments of the corps of Abu Ubaidah and Shurahbil were spread over the District of Hauran. Eventually he was suspected of disloyalty and was arrested, tried and then executed in June 841. ʿUmar ibn ʿAbdallāh ibn Marwān, ʿAmr ibn ʿUbaydallāh ibn Marwān, or simply Umar al-Aqta surnamed al-Aqtaʾ, "the one-handed", and found as Amer or Ambros in Byzantine sources, was the semi-independent Arab emir of Malatya (Melitene) from the 830s until his death in the Battle of Lalakaon on 3 September 863. Skip navigation Sign in. By 2 BBY, the Imperial tactician Grand Admiral Thrawn had turned his attention to the rebel insurgents in the Lothal sector. The Battle of Bathys Ryax was fought in 872 or 878 between the Byzantine Empire and the Paulicians. [16][20][21], The coordination of all these forces was not easy, but the Byzantine armies, marching from three directions, were able to converge on the same day (September 2) and surround Umar's smaller army at a location called Poson (Πόσων) or Porson (Πόρσων) near the Lalakaon River. The Battle of Lalakaon (Greek : Μάχη τοῦ Λαλακάοντος), or Poson or Porson (Greek : Μάχη τοῦ Πό(ρ)σωνος), [1] was fought in 863 between the Byzantine Empire and an invading Arab army in Paphlagonia (modern northern Turkey). As Byzantium remained the Caliphate's major infidel enemy, Arab raids (razzias) into Asia Minor continued throughout the 8th and 9th centuries. [4] With the waning of the Abbasid Caliphate's power after 842 and the rise of semi-independent emirates along the eastern Byzantine frontier, however, the Byzantines could increasingly assert themselves. The Battle of Lalakaon (Μάχη τοῦ Λαλακάοντος), or Poson or Porson (Μάχη τοῦ Πό(ρ)σωνος), was fought in 863 between the Byzantine Empire and an invading Arab army in Paphlagonia (modern northern Turkey). The northeastern army defeated the Byzantine forces under Theophilos at Anzen, allowing the Abbasids to penetrate deep into Byzantine Asia Minor and converge upon Ancyra, which they found abandoned. The Second Arab Siege of Constantinople in 717–718 was a combined land and sea offensive by the Muslim Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate against the capital city of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople. [22], Only the emir's son, leading a small force, escaped the battlefield, fleeing south towards the border area of Charsianon. The Battle of Anzen or Dazimon was fought on 22 July 838 at Anzen or Dazimon between the Byzantine Empire and the forces of the Abbasid Caliphate. Battle of Lalakaon Top # 5 Facts. Petronas was a brother of Empress Theodora and hence brother-in-law of Emperor Theophilos, under whom he advanced to the rank of patrikios and the post of droungarios of the Vigla regiment. Battle of Lalakaon Nominator (s): Constantine ✍ This is an old article (mostly written in 2009, when it also passed GA) on an important turning-point in the Arab-Byzantine Wars. John Kourkouas, also transliterated as Kurkuas or Curcuas, was one of the most important generals of the Byzantine Empire. In 855, Petronas and Bardas encouraged Michael III to seize control of the government: Theoktistos was murdered, Theodora banished to a monastery, Bardas became Michael's chief minister, and Petronas was tasked with the war against the Arabs. Three separate armies were formed and converged on the Arabs: a northern Byzantine force composed of the forces from the Black Sea themes of the Armeniacs, Bucellarians, Koloneia and Paphlagonia; a southern force, probably the one that had already fought at the Bishop's Meadow and had kept shadowing the Arab army, composed from the Anatolic, Opsician and Cappadocian themes, as well as the kleisourai (frontier districts) of Seleukeia and Charsianon; and the western force, under Petronas himself, comprising the men of the Macedonian, Thracian and Thracesian themes and of the imperial tagmata from the capital. The Byzantines moved quickly to take advantage of their victory: a Byzantine army invaded Arab-held Armenia, and sometime in October or November, defeated and killed the emir Ali ibn Yahya. Internal unrest prevented the Abbasids from exploiting their victory, however. Battle of Lalakaon is similar to these military conflicts: Battle of Mauropotamos, Battle of Bathys Ryax, Byzantine–Bulgarian war of 913–927 and more. The Battle of Lalakaon (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Λαλακάοντος ), or Poson or Porson (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Πό(ρ)σωνος ), was fought in 863 between the Byzantine Empire and an invading Arab army in Paphlagonia (modern northern Turkey). [27][28] Thus, within a single campaigning season, the Byzantines had eliminated the three most dangerous opponents on their eastern border. Grégoire claimed that the eponymous protagonist, the young Byzantine warrior Armouris, was actually inspired by Emperor Michael III. Battle of Lalakaon: Jesse Russel, Ronald Cohn: Books - Amazon.ca. Search. [14] [22] The exact location of the river and the battle site have not been identified, but most scholars agree that they were near the Halys River, about 130 kilometres (81 mi) southeast of Amisos. Michael III was Byzantine Emperor from 842 to 867. The Battle of Mauropotamos was fought in 844, between the armies of the Byzantine Empire and the Abbasid Caliphate, at Mauropotamos. [9] [11] [12] It is likely that a Paulician contingent under Karbeas was also present, although this is not explicitly attested. Also, the Byzantine Empire was able to focus on Europe, and it eventually forced the Bulgarians into accepting Byzantine Christianity as their religion. The Byzantine success had another corollary: deliverance from constant Arab pressure on the eastern frontier allowed the Byzantine government to concentrate on affairs in Europe, and, in particular, neighboring Bulgaria. The Byzantines stood firm, giving the other two Byzantine armies time to close in and attack the Arab army's exposed rear and flanks. During this time, he was one of the greatest threats to the Byzantine Empire on its eastern frontier, and became a prominent figure in later Arabic and Turkish epic literature. Nikephoros' accession in 802 resulted in a resumption of warfare between Byzantium and the Abbasid Caliphate. The Byzantine victory at Lalakaon altered the strategic balance in the region, and heralded the beginning of Byzantium's century-long offensive in the East. [22], Only the Emir's son, at the head of a small force, managed to escape the battlefield, fleeing south towards the border area of Charsianon. [30], The removal of the eastern threat and increasing Byzantine confidence also opened up opportunities in the west, where the Bulgarian ruler Boris (r. 852–889) had been negotiating with the Pope and Louis the German (r. 817–876) for the conversion of himself and his people to Christianity. The subsequent battle, ending in a Byzantine victory and the emir's death on the field, was followed by a successful Byzantine counteroffensive across the border. [1][29][30], According to the French Byzantinist Henri Grégoire, the Byzantine success against the Arabs that culminated with the Battle of Lalakaon inspired the creation of one of the oldest surviving acritic (heroic) poems: the Song of Armouris. The Battle of Marash was fought in 953 near Marash between the forces of the Byzantine Empire under the Domestic of the Schools Bardas Phokas the Elder, and of the Hamdanid Emir of Aleppo, Sayf al-Dawla, the Byzantines' most intrepid enemy during the mid-10th century. Given the bias against Michael by the historians writing during the Macedonian dynasty, this may be a deliberate omission. [16] [24] [25] The rout was complete, with most of the Arab army (and Umar) falling in battle. [32] A battle in the Byzantine epic cycle around Digenis Akritas is also reminiscent of the events at Lalakaon, as the eponymous hero surrounds an Arab army near Malakopeia. The rebels built a base called Chopper Base in the Atollon Coral Mesa in Chopper's honor. Topic. The Byzantine victories were decisive; the main threats to the Byzantine borderlands were eliminated, and the era of Byzantine ascendancy in the East (culminating in the 10th-century conquests) began. Battle of Lalakaon: Miller, Frederic P., Vandome, Agnes F., McBrewster, John: Amazon.com.au: Books The Arabs crossed the Cilician Gates into Byzantine territory, plundering as they went, until they reached a place near Tyana. Mu'tasim targeted Amorium, a Byzantine city in western Asia Minor, because it was the birthplace of the ruling Byzantine dynasty and, at the time, one of Byzantium's largest and most important cities. Promoted to magistros and domestikos ton scholon, he died in 865. The Battle of Lalakaon (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Λαλακάοντος) or the Battle of Poson (or Porson) (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Πό(ρ)σωνος) was fought in 863 between the Byzantine Empire and an invading Arab army in Paphlagonia (modern northern Turkey). The Arabs crossed the Cilician Gates into Byzantine territory, plundering as they went, until they neared Tyana. The Paulicians were a Christian sect which—persecuted by the Byzantine state—had established a separate principality at Tephrike on Byzantium's eastern border and collaborated with the Muslim emirates of the Thughur, the Abbasid Caliphate's borderlands, against the Empire. The Byzantinist John Haldon considers the former number to be closer to reality, and estimates the size of the combined Arab force at 15,000–20,000 men. He was surprised, however, at Krasos and heavily defeated, barely escaping with his own life. Abū Ḥafṣ ibn ʿAmr was the last Arab emir of Malatya (Melitene) before its reconquest by the Byzantine Empire in 934. Umar al-Aqta was able to overcome the initial Byzantine resistance against his invasion and reach the shores of the Black Sea. Kiapidou, Eirini-Sofia (17 January 2003). This was followed shortly afterwards with another raid by the forces of Tarsus under Ali. The expedition took place in southeastern and central Asia Minor, where the Abbasid and Byzantine empires shared a long land border. Noted for his administrative and political competence, Theoktistos played a major role in ending the Byzantine Iconoclasm, and fostered the ongoing renaissance in education within the Empire. The campaign marked the culmination of twenty years of attacks and progressive Arab occupation of the Byzantine borderlands, while Byzantine strength was sapped by prolonged internal turmoil. Military conflicts similar to or like Battle of Lalakaon. The Battle of Lalakaon(Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Λαλακάοντος) or the Battle of Poson(or Porson) (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Πό(ρ)σωνος)[1]was fought in 863 between the Byzantine Empireand an invading Arab army in Paphlagonia(modern northern Turkey). In 716, after years of preparations, the Arabs, led by Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik, invaded Byzantine Asia Minor. [7][8], Map of Byzantine Asia Minor and the Byzantine-Arab frontier region in the middle of the 9th century, In the summer of 863, Umar struck again, joining forces with the Abbasid general Ja'far ibn Dinar al-Khayyat (probably the governor of Tarsus) for a successful raid into Cappadocia. [3] [28], The importance of these victories did not go unnoticed at the time. Compre o livro Paulicianism: Battle of Lalakaon, Battle of Bathys Ryax, Divri I, Petrus Siculus na Amazon.com.br: confira as ofertas para livros em inglês e importados [13] [14], Emperor Michael III assembled his army to counter the Arab raid, and met them in battle at an area known in Arab sources as Marj al-Usquf ("Bishop's Meadow"): a highland near Malakopeia, north of Nazianzus. After sacking the city, they turned south to Amorium, where they arrived on 1 August. The Abbasid campaign was led personally by the Caliph al-Mu'tasim, in retaliation to a virtually unopposed expedition launched by the Byzantine emperor Theophilos into the Caliphate's borderlands the previous year. Despite being outnumbered, the Arabs defeated the Byzantines who broke and fled. After the Muslim conquest of the city of Bosra, their commander Shurahbil's spy came from Ajnadayn with news that soon a strong Imperial army would gather there. Year 863 (DCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. With the aid of the emir of Melitene, Umar al-Aqta, he founded the Paulician principality of Tephrike, which he ruled until his death in 863. In late summer 804, the Abbasids had invaded Byzantine Asia Minor for one of their customary raids, and Nikephoros set out to meet them. The Sack of Amorium by the Abbasid Caliphate in mid-August 838 was one of the major events in the long history of the Arab–Byzantine Wars. 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